A hospital-based case-control study of Kidney, renal pelvis and ureter cancer was conducted to evaluate occupational and other risk factors in six centers (Moscow, Russia; Bucharest, Romania; Lodz, Poland; Brno, Central Moravia; and Prague, Czech Republic) across central and eastern Europe. The study areas have demonstrated a wide range of incidence rates for Kidney, renal pelvis and ureter cancer, including the world's highest rates in the Central Moravia region. In-person interviews were conducted to elicit information on demographic background, smoking and passive smoke exposure, alcohol drinking, dietary practices, height, weight and medical history, family history of cancer, residential history, and occupational history. Medical records were extracted for case diagnostic information. We have explored variation in genes that play a general role in carcinogenesis, cancer susceptibility, and have collaborated on genome wide assacion studies of Kidney, renal pelvis and ureter cancer. We have analyzed tumor samples for mutations in important tumor suppressor genes and have conducted protein expression studies using tissue micrarrays. These markers have been evaluated for associations with patient/tumor characteristics, risk factors and exposures. They are now being evaluated for association with survival under CAS 19420.