NCI conducted a hospital-based case-control study from 1999 to 2003 to evaluate kidney cancer risks in relation to occupational and other environmental and lifestyle exposures in six centers across Eastern Europe (Moscow, Russia; Brno, Prague, and Central Moravia, Czech Republic; Lodz, Poland; Bucharest, Romania). Over a two year period, investigators interviewed and collected blood from 1,100 cancer cases and 1,500 controls, and collected tumor tissues from the cases. The study focused on evaluating several occupational exposures including TCE (and other chlorinated + organic solvents), lead and other metals, dusts, fibers, and occupational sunlight exposure. DNA from blood and tumor tissue has been used to examine carcinogen fingerprints using mutational spectrum and methylation analyses of the VHL gene, chromosomal arrays, and immunohistochemistry. A follow-up study of five-year survival is in progress.